Tag: oil production
Oil and gas are the basis of the fuel and energy economy of all developed countries, the wealthiest chemical raw materials. Oil and gas production is a complex and multifaceted process, saturated with technical devices.
An oil and gas operator must be a general mechanic with knowledge of electrical engineering, automation, and electronics basics, well versed in geology and drilling. Several companies specialize in this particular activity.
Oil and Gas Production Methods
Oil is extracted by a fountain or one of the mechanized methods. The choice of the process is determined by the amount of reservoir energy and the geological and technical characteristics of the well.
With the gushing method of production, oil rushes by gravity through the tubing to the surface. The well is sealed with a Christmas tree. It serves to divert oil and gas to the oil collection pipeline and to regulate the flow rate of the well and allows for field research. When the reservoir energy is depleted or lacking, oil is extracted by a mechanized method.
Gas Lift Method
In gas-lift or compressor production, oil is lifted by compressed gas, injected into the well from the surface. A gas lift is a tubing string with starting and operating valves. The gas enters the pipes through the valves and carries the oil upward. Well flow rate is regulated by changing the volume of gas injection. The wellhead fittings of gas-lift wells are the same as those of the flowing well. In addition, a gas line is supplied to pump gas into the well. The gas lift method has relatively limited applications.
Oil Production by Sucker Rod Pumps
The most common oil production is sucker rod pumps. They can work at depths of up to two and a half thousand meters. The reciprocating movement of the pump plunger is transmitted from the pumping unit through the sucker rod string.
Oil Production by Electric Centrifugal Pumps
Submersible electric centrifugal pumps are produced with a capacity of 40 to 700 cubic meters per day, with a head-up to 1700 m. The ground equipment of the unit consists of wellhead fittings, an autotransformer, and a control station. The multi-section centrifugal pump has 80 to 400 sections.
Together with the oil-filled engine and hydraulic protection, the pump is lowered into the well. Installation and testing of the submersible electric pump is carried out immediately before running, right at the wellhead. Power is supplied to the electric motor through an armored sealed cable. When assembled, the length of the underground part of the installation reaches 30 meters and more.…